An article by Gary Taubes in 1995 made a big splash by alleging that Epidemiology has met its limits because the effect sizes that they were looking for in recent years were being swamped by the unavoidable biases associated with most Epidemiologic studies. A large research team reviewed the examples cited by that paper and found a quarter of the papers cited as questionable actually panned out, but a few of them have gone on to become cornerstones of medical knowledge.
Lauren E. McCullough, Maret L. Maliniak, Avnika B. Amin, Julia M. Baker, Davit Baliashvili, Julie Barberio, Chloe M. Barrera, Brown Carolyn A., Lindsay J. Collin, Alexa A. Freedman, David C. Gibbs, Maryam B. Haddad, Eric W. Hall, Sarah Hamid, Kristin R. V. Harrington, Aaron M. Holleman, John A. Kaufman, Mohammed A. Khan, Katie Labgold, Veronica C. Lee, Amyn A. Malik, Laura M. Mann, Kristin J. Marks, Kristin N. Nelson, Zerleen S. Quader, Katherine Ross-Driscoll, Supriya Sarkar, Monica P. Shah, Iris Y. Shao, Jonathan P. Smith, Kaitlyn K. Stanhope, Marisol Valenzuela-Lara, Miriam E. Van Dyke, Kartavya J. Vyas, Timothy L. Lash. Epidemiology beyond its limits. Science Advances, 8(23), 2022-06-10. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abn3328. Available in html format and pdf format.