Dear Professor Mean: I am using a risk stratification tool for patients presenting to the ED with chest pain. This has been a well validated tool in the ED, but I want to show that the scores are reproducible irrespective of the grade of doctor or assessment nurse calculating the score. I’m going to collect a convenience sample of patients presenting to the ED, and after I get informed consent, I will have those patients assessed separately by a triage-trained nurse, an intern doctor, a registrar and a consultant. I will calculation agreement using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). My question is: How do I calculate the sample size in this context?

There is no formal hypothesis in this setting, so you can’t really do a power calculation. Well, maybe you could but it would be a rather forced and artificial setting.

What you want here is a confidence interval for the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). And you want that confidence interval to be reasonably narrow. An ICC with a confidence interval that goes from 0.06 to 0.91 is pretty worthless.

So dig out the formula for the confidence interval for ICC and find a sample size that makes your interval reasonably narrow. Make sure that you plug in a plausible value for? ICC and not zero.

The formula for this confidence interval is very messy, so you will almost certainly be better off using a simulation approach. Set up a dozen or so plausible scenarios for your research that include both weak and strong measures of association and also include a range of marginal distributions. Run these simulations and show that at your proposed sample size, all the 95% confidence intervals under all the scenarios are reasonably narrow. Then pick one of the scenarios to present to the IRB or anyone else reviewing your research.

Now the actual research will probably compute some statistics that are far more sophisticated than a simple confidence interval for single ICC. You might want to compare one ICC to another ICC. Or you might want to estimate the source of disagreement if the ICC is too small (e.g., the nurses rate more harshly than the doctors). But don’t worry too much about this. If you get a nice narrow interval for a simple ICC, then everything else will probably also have reasonably good precision and/or power.